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Tam Versiyon: Passive Voice
Şu anda arşiv modunu görüntülemektesiniz. Tam versiyonu görüntülemek için buraya tıklayınız.
1. Active fiilin nesnesi, passive cümlede özne durumuna geçer ve cümlenin tensine uygun olarak be+v3 alır.
=> He is washing the car. The car is being washed by him
2. cümlenin sonunda kullanılan zaman zarfları, by phrase’den sonra gelir.

=> => Jack washed the car yesterday. ----- The car was washed by jack yesterday
**** cümlenin sonunda kullanılan bu zarflar vurguyu artırmak için cümlenin başında da kullanılabilir.
3. Always, usually, just, already gibi cümle içinde kullanılan zaman zarfları eğer cümlede başka yardımcı fiil yoksa be fiilinden hemen sonra gelir.
=> Jack usually washes the car in the afternoon. ----- The car is usually washed by Jack in the afternoon.
=> Jack last washed the car two days ago. ------ The car was washed by Jack two days ago.
4. Probably olumsuz cümlede özneden hemen sonra gelir.
=> Jack probably won’t wash the car tomorrow. ------- The car probably won’t be washed by Jack tomorrow
=> Jack will probably not wash the car tomorrow --------- The car will probably not be washed by Jack tomorrow
5. Carefully, beautifully, deeply gibi durum belirten zarflar (adverbs of manner)passive cümlede genellikle be fiili ile asıl fiil arasında yer alır.
=> The horror film affected teh children badly. ----- The children were badly affected by the horror film
=> We placed the glassware carefully in the cupboard ---- the glassware was carefully placed in the cupboard.
6. Passive bir cümlede eylemi yapan kişiyi by phrase ile belirtiriz. Ancak, passive bir cümlede eylemi yapan kişi, eğer eylemin kimin tarafından yapıldığı önemliyse belirtilir. Eylemin kim tarafından yapıldığı değil de eylemin yapılmış olması önemliyse by phrase kullanılmaz.
7. Active bir soruyu passive bir soruya çevirirken yine aynı kurallar geçerlidir.
8. Who ile sorulan sorularda, eğer Who eylemi yapan kişiyi (agent)soruyorsa, Who.........by? kullanmamız gerekir.
=> Who discovered America? ----Who was America discovered by? --- By whom was America discovered?
=> Who founded The Republic of Turkey?--- Who was The Republic of Turkey founded by?
9. Who nesne durumundaki kişiyi soruyorsa by kullanılmaz. Ancak, nesneye ait bir preposition varsa kullanılır.
=> Who will you invite to the party? ----- Who will be invited to your party?
=> Who did you see with him? ----- Who was he seen with
=> Who are you going to borrow money from? ------ Who is money going to be borrowed from?
=> Who did he lend his car to? ---- Who was his car lent to?
10. What, bir cümlede nesneyi sorar. What ile sorulmuş bir soruda, nesne yoktur. Bu durumda, cümleyi passive yaparken özne durumuna getirebilceğimiz bir sözcük yok demektir. Böyle bir cüleyi şu şekilde passive yaparız:
=> What are they doing about yhe case? ----- What is being done about the case?
=> What did they do about the case? ------ What was done about the case?
=> What have they done about the case? ----- What has been done about the case?
********** Passive cümlede What’dan sonra gelen fiiller tekildir.
11. Bazı fiiller iki nesne alır. Indirect Object ve Direct Object. Bu nesnelerin cümle içindeki yerleri iki şekilde olabilir.
I gave him some money yesterday. ------ I gave some money to him yesterday.
I.O D.O D.O I.O
I will buy her a book tomorrow. ------ I will buy a book for her tomorrow.
I.O D.O D. O I. O
Indirect object yani insan olan nesne, fiilden hemen sonra geliyorsa diğer nesneye geçerken preposition kullanılmaz. Eğer fiileden hemen sonra direct object geliyorsa, indirect object’e geçerken fiilini gerektirdiğine göre to ya da for kullanılır. Bu iki nesneli fiillerin passive biçimi şu şekilde olur:
I gave him some money yesterday. :
• He was given some money yesterday
• Some money was given to him yesterday.
I will buy her a book tomorrow.
• She will be bought a book tomorrow
• A book will be bought for her tomorrow.
Farklı şekillerde passive yapılabilmelerine karşın bu cümlelerin anlamları aynıdır. Indirect objectin passive cümlede subject olması daha yaygın olarak kullanılır.
12. Bütün modalların passive yapıları aynıdır.
modal + be + past participle modal + have been + past participle


STATIVE PASSIVE
İngilizce’de fiillerin üçüncü halleri bazı cümlelerde sıfat gibi işlev görür. Bu cümleler yapı olarak passive olmamalarına karşın, kullanılan past participle, eylemin nasıl ya da kim tarafından yapıldığını ifade etmez. Yalnızca bir ismi tanımlar. Yani bir nesnenin ya da kişinin durumunu ifade eder. Bu ismi tanımladığı için de bu sözcükler sıfat görevindedir. Bu tür sözcüklerin, cümlede passive eylem görevinde mi yoksa bir ismi tanımlayan sıfat görenide mi olduğunu cümlenin akışından çıkarabiliriz.
=> Yesterday, the window of the classroom was broken by one of the students. (passive action)
=> When I entered the classroom yesterday, the window was broken. (stative passive)
=> The door to the school is always locked by the caretaker after the classes are over. (passive action )
=> We can’t enter that room. The door is locked. (stative passive)

1. Stative passive bildiren fiiller çoğunlukla bir preposition ile birlikte kullanılır.
=> I’m interested in music, especially in folk music.
=> She is married to an American
=> I’m satisfied with the progress you’ve made in English
=> When the teacher gave the exam results, Ann was disappointed with her score.

THE PASSIVE WİTH GET

1. Bazı sıfatlar get ile kullanılarak onları durum bildiren bir yapıdan eylem bildiren bir yapıya dönüştürebiliriz.
=> I couldn’t wear my jeans this morning, because they were still wet. (were wet kotun o anki durumunu belirtiyor)
=> When I stepped into a hole full of water yesterday, my jeans got wet. (got wet, o anda olan bir olayı belirtiyor.)
2. get + past participle da aynı şekilde kullanılır ve passive bir anlam taşır.
=> She didn’t want to go out because she was tired.
=> Having worked for three hours without stopping, she got tired.
=> When she came home, she was very annoyed.
=> She got very annoyed when she heard the news.
3. “Annoy, please, surprise, frighten,” gibi filleri kullanıren dikkatli olmak
gerekir çünkü bu fiillerin active halleri kızdırmak, memnun etmek, şaşırtmak, korkutmak biçimindedir. Eğer bunları kızmak, şaşırmak, korkmak anlamında kullanacaksak be + past participle ya da get + past participle yapısıyla yani, passive cümle yapısıyla kullanmamız gerekir.
=> She disappointed me with her low grades.
=> I was disappointed with her low grades
=> He surprises us all with his strange behaviour.
=> We are all suprised at his strange behaviour
=> He annoyed me by coming late for his appointment.
=> I got annoyed whenhe came late for his appointment.
=> The dog frightened me when it suddenly appeared in front of me.
=> I got frightened when a dog suddenly appeared in front of me.

BY PHRASE OR ANOTHER PREPOSITIONS
1. Bazı cümlelerde, eylemi yapan kişinin yanısıra, eylemin hangi araçla yapıldığını da
ifade etmek isteriz.
=> He chopped the wood with an axe.
=> The wood was chopped with an axe.

=> The burglar hit the owner on the head with a stone.
=> The owner was hit on the head with a stone. (by the burglar)
2. Eylemi yapmak için kullanılan aracı ise with, in on gibi o sözcüğün kendine ait
preposition’u ile ifade ederiz. Eğer eylem kendiliğinden gerçekleşmişse, nesneer için de by phrase kullanırız.
=> He was hit on the head with a stone by the burglar.(vurma eylemini bir kişi yapıyor.)
=> A stone rooled down the cliffs and he was injured by the falling stone. (taş kendiliğinden düşüyor)

IMPERSONAL PRONOUNS IN THE PASSİVE
Anyone, no one, nobody, anything, nothign gibi belgisiz zamirlerin bulunduğu active cümleyi passive yaparken cümlenin olumsuz anlamını bozmamaya dikkat ediniz.
=> Nobody can repair this broken vase. --- This broken vase can’t be repaired by anybody.
=> Nobody has considered the result like this. --- The result hasn’t been considered like this.
=> You can’t do anything about this case. --- Nothing can be done about this case.
=> They don’t allow anyone to leave early. --- No one is allowed to leave early.




PASSIVE WİTH GERUNDS-INFINITIVES
1. want, would, like, enjoy, hate gibi filler hem nesne alarak hem de nesne almadan kullanılabilen fillerdir. Eğer bu filleri nesnesiz kullanıyorsak, passive biçime dönüştüremeyiz. Bazıları normal olarak dönüştürülse bile anlam açısından bozuk cümle elde edilir.
=> I want to go abroad.
=> I would like to read a book .
=> I like swimming.
2. Gerund- infinitive içeren bir cümlede özellikle fiillerden hangisine active hangisinin passive olduğuna dikkat ediniz. Bazen her iki fille de passive olabilir.
=> They don’t allow students to take books out from the library.
Students aren’t allowed to take books out from the library.
They don’t allow books to be taken out from the library.
Books aren’t allowed to be taken out from the library.
IT’S SAİD THAT.... / HE IS SAID TO ...
1. Main clause + noun clause biçiminde kurulmuş cümleleri iki şekilde passive
yapabiliriz:
=> People say that he lives abroad now.
It is said that he lives abroad now.
He is said to live abroad now.
=> People believe that he is the murderer of his wife.
It’s believed that he is the murderer of his wife
He is believed to be the murderer of his wife
Birinci tip passive cümleye It’s + past participle ile başlanır ve that clause aynen eklenir. Ikinci tip passive cümleye ise noun clause’daki özne ile başlanır. Bu passive biçimini tense’lere göre şu şekilde kullanabiliriz:

a) Present + be
=> They say the man upstairs is a thief.
It is said that the man upstairs is a thief
The man upstairs is said to be a thief
b) simple present
=> We understand that he dislikes children.
It is understood that he dislikes children.
He is understood to dislike children.
c) Past be (was were)
=> They say that he was very rich in the past.
It is said that he was very rich in the past.
He is said to have been very rich in the past.
d) Simple past
=> People claim that he left the country two months ago.
It is claimed that he left the country two months ago.
He is claimed to have left the country two months ago.
e) Present perfect
=> People think that he has deserted his family.
It is thought that he has deserted his family.
He is thought to have deserted his family.
f) Present progressive
=> We think he is waiting there now.
It is thought that he is waiting there now.
He is thought to be waiting there now.
g) Past progressive
=> People say he was working very hard.
It is said that he was working very hard.
He is said to have been working very hard.
h) Future tense
=> People expect that the rate of exchange will go down soon.
It is expected that the rate of exchange will go down soon.
The rate of exchange is expected to go down soon.
i) Present passive
=> They say that a lot of electrical appliances are stolen every day.
It is said that a lot of electrical appliances are stolen every day.
A lot of electrical appliances are said to be stolen every day.

j) Past passive
=> They report that two people were killed in the explosion.
It is reported that two people were killed in the explosion.
Two people are reported to have been killed in the explosion.

2. Temel cümledeki yüklem past tense ise passive cümlede was were kullanmamız
gereklidir.
=> People believed that he had committed the crime.
It was believed that he had committed the crime.
He was believed to have committed the crime.
3. Eğer hem esas cümlenin hem de yan cümlenin yüklemleri past ise, iki eylem
arasında zaman farkı olmadığı için bu ifadeyi passive yapıya to do biçiminde aktarırız. Yan cümledeki eylem daha önce gerçekleşmişse, bunu active cümlede past perfect kullanarak ifade ederiz. Bu durumda iki eylem arasındaki farkı göstermek için passive cümlede yine to have done kullanmamız gerekir.
=> They believed she knew the truth.
She was believed to know the truth.
=> They believed she had acted deliberately.
She was believed to have acted deliberately.
*********bu passive yapısıyla yaygın olarak kullanılan fiiller say, claim, understand, suppose, expect, report, allege, acknowledge, assume, estimate, believe, consider gibi fiillerdir.